Nanosecond high speed ICCD camera family:
4 Quik E

Highlights

  • Gate time down to 1.2ns
  • High resolution images
  • Superior image quality
  • Highest exposure repetition rate
  • Single photon detection
  • Spectral sensitivity from UV to NIR
  • Light and compact design
4 Quik E ICCD camera



4 Quik E Brochure
4 Quik E ICCD camera brochure icon
Technical drawing
Icon for the technical drawing of the 4Picos and 4QuikE ICCD camera

Applications:

Discharge Nonlinearity
Spectroscopy Applications
Plasma Bullet Propagation
Beam Dynamics Measurement
Reflectance Oximetry



Overview

4 Quik E ICCD Camera - fastest intensified CCD camera

ultra fast gated ICCD camera
Based on more than 20 years of excellence in the development and progression of world-class, fast-gated Intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras, Stanford Computer Opitcs sets new standards of rapid, picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging with the introduction of the 4 Quik E ICCD camera family.

The 4 Quik E ICCD camera series contains the very best from CCD sensor and gated image intensifier technologies. It is achieving a superior combination of rapid acquisition rates and ultra-high sensitivity down to single photon. Exceptional detection performances are accessed through high quantum-efficiency (QE) image intensifiers, up to 3.3 MHz photocathode gating rates (burst).

Extrem low jitter, low insertion delay gating electronics and nanosecond-scale optical gating provide excellent timing accuracy down to 100 picoseconds, allowing ultra-precise synchronisation of complex experiments through 4 Quik E ICCD camera series comprehensive range of triggering options and input/outputs interface.

 

Technical Details

Parameter

High Resolution (HR)        Standard Resolution (SR)
Internal exposure time 1.2ns - 80s; min. steps 100ps
External exposure time 1.2ns ... DC
Trigger propagation delay internal gate pulse: 60-65ns
external gate pulse: 30-35ns
Jitter < 0.02ns
Optical shutter repetition rate

standard: 200kHz (continuous, max. 1 hour)*, 3.3MHz (burst mode)
optional: 2MHz (continuous), 3.3MHz (burst mode), on request: 5MHz (continuous)

* Please note: longer times may damage the pulse amplifier

Dynamic range A/D 14bit, up to 21bit with 4 Spec E image and data acquisition software
with all lines integrated (binned), dynamic expansion active
Sensitivity of system more than 1count/photoelectron pixel, up to 80s integration time on CCD
Camera digital output USB 2.0
CCD output standard: 12bit
optional: 14bit
standard: 12bit
optional: 14bit
CCD resolution 1360 x 1024 pixel 782 x 582 pixel
CCD pixel size 4.7 x 4.7µm 8.3 x 8.3µm
Binning

1x1 (full frame) Mode:
   1360 x 1024 pixel
2x2 (binning) Mode:
   680 x 512 pixel
ROI Mode (region of interest)*:
   456 x 342 pixel

*ROI : central 1/3rd

1x1 (full frame) Mode:
   780 x 580 pixel
2x2 (binning) Mode:
   390 x 290 pixel
ROI Mode (region of interest)*:
   260 x 190 pixel

*ROI : central 1/3rd

Frame rate (1x1/2x2/ROI)
depends on PC
4.9 / 12.5 / 14.0fps
in 12/14bit mode
8.0 / 15.4 / 17.5fps
in 8bit mode
12.5 / 20.0 / 23.0fps
in 12/14bit mode
15.4 / 20.0 / 25.0fps
in 8bit mode
Frame rate (1x1/2x2/ROI) 10.6 / 17.4 / 20.4fps in burst mode 29.4 / 54.1 / 66.9fps in burst mode
Gain 1x1 and ROI Mode: 0..20db, 2x2 binning Mode: 0..25db
Scan mode field/frame, selectable through computer RS232 interface
Optical interface standard: C-mount, optional: F-mount
Coupling lens customized coupling lens between image intensifier -> CCD sensor for
best image quality (MTF cut off @ 180 lp/mm) without any honeycomb structures, distortion or optical vignetting
Image intensifier standard: 18mm diameter
optional: 25mm diameter
Input image area
(field of view)
⌀ 18mm: 14.4 x 10.8mm
⌀ 25mm: 20 x 15mm
Photocathode standard: S20 (UV) or S25 (IR), others optional/on request
Spectral sensitivity UV - NIR, depending on the photocathode (not all in one)
Phosphor screen standard: P43, optional: P46 on request (for 500ns fast double framing)
Camera dimensions 248 x 110 x 135 mm, (l x w x h), without objective lens
Camera weight 3kg, all in one head, without objective lens
Camera mount 1/4" x 20 and M8 mounting hole at the bottom of the camera
Power Supply 12V ±5%

FAQ

Most ICCD cameras on the market show strong honeycomb structures. Why don't yours?

Very slight honeycomb structures originate from the image intensifiers micro channel plate that is an agglomeration of parallel oriented hexagonal fiber bundles. By using premium quality image intensifiers these structures are so slight that they are indeed not visible in almost all applications. However, clearly visible honeycomb structures are usually added to the image by optical fiber tapers that transfer the light emitted from the image intensifiers phosphor screen towards the CCD sensor. For this reason, we use only in-house developed telecentric coupling lenses instead of fiber tapers to avoid any additional honeycomb structures and furthermore to assure absolute distortion free imaging.

What is the difference between field rate and frame rate?

In contrast to progressive scan in interlaced video technique the pictures on the screen are built up by a sequence of fields which are only the half of a frame. Each frame is divided into two fields where one of both contains the even rows only and the other one contains the odd rows only. Instead for showing 30 frames per second for example, 60 fields are shown per second. Because of the doubled repetition frequency this concept results in a much more flicker-free video reproduction.

What does GenII or GenIII mean?

When night vision devices were originally developed their image intensifiers were bulky and less sensitive units. Improvements were developed later on and from the second generation of image intensifiers, the GenII intensifiers, the innovative multi channel plate was utilized. GenII intensifiers are equipped with different types of photocathode materials, that allow to customize the image intensifier to the spectral requirements of the specific application. However, photocathodes of GenII intensifiers provide quantum efficiencies of the order of only 25%.

GenIII intensifiers, the third generation, also use the highly effective multi channel plate. But, in addition, they offer gallium arsenide photocathodes that feature quantum efficiencies of more than 50%. A selection of available photocathode materials is shown here.

What is the main functional difference between ICCD cameras and EMCCD cameras?

An ICCD camera contains a CCD sensor and an image intensifier mounted in front of it. The image intensifier multiplies the incoming photons and supplies the CCD sensor with a large number of photons even under extreme low-light conditions. Thus, the number of photons collected by the CCD sensor is always much larger than the number of photons originating from the darc current noise. For this reason, there is indeed no need for cooling an ICCD camera.

An EMCCD camera does not contain an image intensifier but an electron multiplying CCD sensor. The incoming photons are directly collected by the CCD sensor. The photo electrons generated by the sensor are then read out and afterwards multiplied electronically in a multi-stage gain register. For this reason, EMCCD cameras need extremely strong cooling, because the electrons originating from the darc current noise are of the same order of magnitude than the signal electrons under low-light conditions and are amplified together with them to the same extend.

Because EMCCD cameras do not include an image intensifier they do not provide fast gating capability as ICCD cameras do.

What is the free running mode?

In the free running mode the camera is periodically gated by the built-in trigger source. The trigger frequency and the field and frame rates resulting therefrom depend on the camera model. E.g. a camera containing an EIA standard video unit runs with 30/60 Hz frame/field rate, whereas a CCIR standard video unit gives 25/50 Hz frame/field rates. Thus, in the free running mode your ICCD camera behaves like a normal video camera.

My camera always shows perpetual fluctuations in image brightness when operated in the free running mode?

This is a typical effect when the camera is operated in free running mode in rooms where artificial lighting is present. The lighting runs with 60 Hz alternated current, hence the illumination of the scene will fluctuate by 120 Hz. On the other hand the cameras shutter is not synchronized to the lightings mains and the exposure time will be much shorter than 1/120 second. So, successive images are taken at different illumination levels each resulting in the observable image brightness fluctuations.

Is cooling always necessary for ICCD cameras for low light conditions?

Yes and no. Cooling the CCD sensor strongly reduces the darc current. Because the noise of the darc current is derived as the darc currents square root the noise is also reduced by cooling the sensor. And, the lower the darc current noise compared to the signals noise the better.

But, ICCD cameras amplify the incoming light itself by means of the image intensifier, so that the CCD sensor detects the already amplified light signal. Hence, the sensor delivers a large signal, also under low light conditions, and thereby also a larger signal noise which again is given by the square root of the signal itself. For this reason its normally not neccessary to decrease the sensors darc current noise by cooling because the noise of the already amplified signal is even higher anyway, at least as long as the sensors temperature does not significantely exceed 30° Celsius.

Please note: This does not impact the signal to noise ratio, because the signal itself is still amplified and scales with the square of the noise. For more information, please see also here.

Are less bits in the A/D conversion would work as well as superior 16 bit A/D converters.

This can obviously not be true. You should not start thinking about this matter by calculating the mathematical resolution of technical A/D converters. Just start with considering the physically given shot noise of the measured light signal. The shot noise is given by the square root of the signals average value. Hence, the shot noise always confiscates the lower significant half of the number of bits that are needed to code the signals average value. So, the usage of more bits in the A/D conversion can indeed not increase resolution or dynamic range because both are in fact limited by the signals shot noise level that lies far above the technical resolution limit anyway. For moe information, please see also here.

I cannot believe its possible to increase resolution and dynamic range without increasing the number of bits in the A/D conversion?

Each A/D conversion gives a certain minimum quantization step. The more bits are used, the smaller the resulting quantization step. However, the resulting values are still digital values. On the other hand a simple mathematical average process following the A/D conversion is of course able to yield real analog values that are not restricted to any quantization levels. This is what frame adding does. Instead of increasing the exposure time of the CCD sensor it adds an equivalent number of short time exposures together in the computer after the A/D conversion. The result is a real analog value. For mor information, please see also here.

I was told that bright light conditions will damage the image intensifier of my ICCD camera?

You can put your mind at rest, they do not. What gives you "watermarks" on the photocathode is not the light intensity onto the camera but a much too high photocurrent over a longer period of time. The photocurrent is proportional to the product of light intensity and gating time which means, that if the light intensity is high, the exposure time has to be short to avoid watermarks. This indeed is a intuitive control process, because if the light intensity is high and the exposure time too long the image will be strongly overexposed. In this case you will reduce exposure time anyway.

If you would like to feel more confident about this we would be pleased to upgrade your camera to automatic exposure control.

Publications

Author Institution Year Title
S.T. Järvinen et al. Tampere University of Technology 2014

Detection of Ni, Pb and Zn in Water Using Electrodynamic Single-Particle Levitation and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

R.M. van der Horst et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2014

Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of nanosecond pulsed discharges in atmosphericpressure N2and N2/H2O mixtures

R. J. Balla et al. NASA Langley Research Center 2014

Supersaturation Total Temperature, Pitot Pressure, and Rayleigh Scattering Measurements at Mach 10

S. T. Järvinen et al. Tampere University of Technology 2013

Detection of zinc and lead in water using evaporative preconcentration and single-particle laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

S.E. Saari et al. Tampere University of Technology 2013 Fluorescence spectroscopy of atmospherically relevant bacterial and fungal spores and potential interferences
T.T.J. Clevis et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2013 Inception and propagation of positive streamers in high-purity nitrogen: effects of the voltage rise-rate
J.A. Aparicio et al. Universidad de Valladolid 2012 Experimental transition probability measurements in pulsed lamps: critical points
T.T.J. Clevis et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2012 Inception and propagation of positive streamers in high-purity nitrogen: effects of the voltage rise-rate
S. Saari et al. Tampere University of Technology 2012

Single-particle fluorescence spectroscopy of atmospheric relevant fungal spores and bacteria and potential interferences

R.M. van der Horst et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2012

Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of nanosecond pulsed discharges in atmospheric-pressure N2 and N2/H2O mixtures

M. Voronov et al. Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials 2012 

Glow discharge imaging spectroscopy with a novel acousto-optical imaging spectrometer

R.J. Peláez et al. Spanish National Research Council 2012

Integration of an Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD) Camera for Accurate Spectroscopic Measurement

I. Arranz et al. Universidad de Valladoli 2012

The influence of spectral power distribution on contrast sensitivity

G. Cristoforetti et al. University of Pisa 2012 Toward the optimization of double-pulse LIBS underwater: effects of experimental parameters on the reproducibility and dynamics of laser-induced cavitation bubble
S.L. Lange
(Ph.D. Thesis)
Bundeswehr Universität München 2012 Direkte Geschwindigkeitsmessung an schnellen Gasströmungen durch nichtresonante Lichtstreuung (german)
U. Ebert et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2011

Multiple scales in streamer discharges, with an emphasis on moving boundary approximations

M. Abdelhamid et al. Cairo University 2011

Analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints using optical catapulting–laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

I.Y. Ohm Seoul National University of Science and Technology 2011

Effect of fuel stratification on initial flame development: Part 3-high swirl condition

D.A. Olson et al. Michigan State University 2011

An Investigation of the effect of Freestream Turbulence on the Laminar Separation Bubble on an SD7003 Airfoil

S. Nijdam et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2011

Laboratory experiments on the interaction of streamers

M. Abdelhamid et al. Cairo University 2011

Optical Catapulting Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (OC‐LIBS) And Conventional LIBS: A comparative Study

M.O. Soler Rus et al. Universidad Complutense de Madrid 2011

Self-acousto-optic modulation and orthogonality violation in the transverse modes of a broad-area Nd-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet single-shot laser

H.C.J. Mulders Eindhoven University of Technology 2011

Determination of the spectroscopic properties of indium bromide

S. Nijdam et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2011

Probing background ionization: Positive streamers with varying pulse repetition rate and with a radioactive admixture

M.L. Shah Bhabha Atomic Research Centre 2010

Measurements of radiative lifetimes, branching fractions, and absolute transition probabilities in atomic samarium using laser-induced fluorescence

F.J. Fortes et al. University of Malaga 2010

Characteristics of solid aerosols produced by optical catapulting studied by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

R. Bussiahn et al. Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology 2010

Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of argon metastable atoms in the effluent of a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet

T. Ihara et al. Kumamoto University 2010

Observations of pulsed discharge phenomena in supercritical carbon dioxide by means of shadowgraph method

Y.W. Choi et al. Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute 2010

Early Detection of Oral Cancer by an Optical Measurement System Measuring Autofluorescence

S. Nijdam et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2010

Probing photo-ionization: experiments on positive streamers in pure gases and mixtures

J. Reimann et al. Universität Bremen 2010

Investigations on Soot Formation in Heptane Jet Diffusion Flames by Optical Techniques

M. Putkiranta Tampere University of Technology 2010

Fluorescence properties of biochemicals in dry NaCl composite aerosol particles and in solutions

D. Dubrovin et al. Tel-Aviv University 2010

Sprite discharges on Venus and Jupiter-like planets: a laboratory investigation

M. Galiová et al.

Masaryk University 2010

Multielemental analysis of prehistoric animal teeth by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

T.N.C. Anand et al. Indian Institute of Science 2010

Laser-based spatio-temporal characterisation of Port Fuel Injection (PFI) sprays

S. Nijdam et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2009

Diameters of positive streamers in pure N2/O2 mixtures

T. Čtvrtníčková et al. University of Malaga 2009

Depth profiles of ceramic tiles by using orthogonal double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectrometry

D.G. Bohl Clarkson University 2009

MTV measurements of the vortical field in the wake of an airfoil oscillating at high reduced frequency

F.J. Fortes et al. University of Malaga 2009

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of solid aerosols produced by optical catapulting

Z. Li Toyo University 2009

Effects of Output Peaking Capacitor on Underwater-Streamer Propagation

G. Schmidl et al. Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology 2009

Spectrally resolved cavity ring down measurement of high reflectivity mirrors using a supercontinuum laser source

A. Manninen Tampere University of Technology 2009

Fluorescence cross sections of bioaerosols and suspended biological agents

J. Campo University of Antwerp 2009

Highly sensitive setup for tunable wavelength hyper-Rayleigh scattering with parallel detection and calibration data for various solvents

S. Nijdam et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2009

Reconnection and merging of positive streamers in air

T. Čtvrtníčková
(Ph.D. Thesis)
University of Malaga 2009

Analysis of solid materials by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

M.N. Fišáková et al. Academy of Science of the Czech Republic 2009

Bear diet, seasonality and migration based on chemical multielemental teeth analyses

M. Galiová et al. Masaryk University 2009

LIBS and LA‐ICP‐MS multielemental analysis of animal tooth

F.J. Fortes et al. University of Malaga

2008

The potential of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for real time monitoring the laser cleaning of archaeometallurgical objects
T.M.P. Briels et al. Eindhoven University of Technology

2008

Positive streamers in ambient air and a N2:O2-mixture (99.8 : 0.2)
J. Campo et al. University of Antwerp

2008

Accurate Determination and Modeling of the Dispersion of the First Hyperpolarizability of an Efficient Zwitterionic Nonlinear Optical Chromophore by Tunable Wavelength Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering
I.Y. Ohm et al. Seoul National University of Technology

2008

Effect of fuel stratification on initial flame development: Part 2-low swirl condition
E. Kindel et al.  

2008

Experimental investigation in the recombination zone of an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet
A. Sobota et al. Eindhoven University of Technology

2008

Speed of streamers in argon over a flat surface of a dielectric
A. Manninen et al. Tampere University of Technology 2008

Instrumentation for measuring fluorescence cross sections from airborne microsized particles

T.M.P. Briels et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2008

Positive streamers in air and nitrogen of varyingdensity: experiments on similarity laws

V. Yordanov et al. University of Sofia 2008

Surface ionization wave in a plasma focus-like model device

T. Čtvrtníčkováa et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2008

Comparison of double-pulse and single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy techniques in the analysis of powdered samples of silicate raw materials for the brick-and-tile industry

T.M.P. Briels et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2008

Positive and negative streamers in ambient air:measuring diameter, velocity and dissipated energy

D. Carver et al. Arnold Air Force Base 2008

Large-scale, hypervelocity, high-fidelity interceptor lethality development in AEDC's range G

T. Čtvrtníčkováa et al. Masaryk University 2007

Optical restriction of plasma emission light for nanometric sampling depth and depth profiling of multilayered metal samples

M. Kim et al. Seoul National University 2007

Flame residence time and strain rate in turbulent hydrogen non-premixed jet flames with coaxial air

T.M.P. Briels et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2007

Pulsed corona investigations with a wide parameter range

D.C. Kyritsis et al. University of Illinois 2007

Instantaneous, two-dimensional, spontaneous Raman measurements of hydrogen number density in a laminar jet using an intra-cavity configuration

S.K. Majumder et al. Vanderbilt University 2007

Autofluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis of cancer eye

Y. Woo et al. Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology  2007

Stratified exhaust gas recirculation under lean operation of a liquefied petroleum gas spark-ignition engine with liquid phase injection

A.M.R. Beaudin et al. Carleton University 2006

Synthesis and properties of zwitterionic nonlinear optical chromophores with large hyperpolarizability for poled polymer applications

E. Cabrera et al. Universidad Complutense de Madrid 2006

Development of spatial turbulence from boundary-controlled patterns in class-B lasers

R. Barni et al. University of Milano-Bicocca 2006

Experimental investigation of plasma structure dynamics in a rotating magnetized plasma

A.V. Sergeyevz Michigan Technological University 2006

An inexpensive uniform-size aerosol generator

T.M.P. Briels et al. Eindhoven University of Technology 2006

Circuit dependence of the diameter ofpulsed positive streamers in air

H.Y. Chu et al. National Central University 2006

Explosion dynamics of dusty plasma liquids induced by laser ablation on suspended dust particles

I.Y. OHM et al. Seoul National University 2006

EFFECT OF FUEL STRATIFICATION ON INITIAL FLAME DEVELOPMENT: PART 1-WITHOUT SWIRL

A.W. DeSilva et al. University of Maryland 2005

Electrical resistivity and thermodynamic properties of dense tungsten plasma

M. Crittin et al. Institut de Recherche en Ophtalmologie, Sion, Switzerland 2005

Optic nerve and retinal reflectance changes in response to physiological stimuli

Ch. Mühlig et al. Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology 2005

Absorption and fluorescence measurements of DUV/VUV coatings

C. Larsson et al. Defence Research and Development Canada 2005

Optically stimulated luminescence in forensics

K. Chirko et al.

Technion–Israel Institute of Technology

2005

Dense plasma formation on the surface of a ferroelectric cathode

S.W. Park et al. Hanyang Univeristy 2005

Effects of a split injection on spray characteristics for a common-rail type diesel injection system

H.K. Suh et al. Hanyang Univeristy 2005

Effect of Ambient Conditions on Spray Characteristics of DME Fuel

Ya. E. Krasik et al. Technion–Israel Institute of Technology 2005

High-current electron sources based on gaseous discharges

S.K. Majumder et al. Centre for Advanced Technology 2005

N2 laser excited autofluorescence spectroscopy of formalin-fixed human breast tissue

S.K. Majumder et al. Centre for Advanced Technology 2005

Relevance vector machine for optical diagnosis of cancer

L.M. Yanson Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2005

Effects of liquid superheat on droplet disruption in a supersonic stream

F.J. Fortes et al. University of Málaga 2005

Chronocultural sorting of archaeological bronze objects using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

 J.M. Cano Pavón et al. University of Málaga 2005

Use of spectroscopic techniques for the chemical analysis of biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics

M. Crittin et al. Institut de Recherche en Ophtalmologie, Sion, Switzerland 2004

Functional imaging of the human papilla and peripapillary region based on flicker-induced reflectance changes

S.W. Park et al. Hanyang University 2004

Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of a fuel spray impinged on the wall

S.K. Majumder et al. Centre for Advanced Technology 2004

Independent Component Analysis for Optical Diagnosis of Cancer

S.K. Majumder et al. Centre for Advanced Technology 2004

Cancer Diagnosis Using N2 Laser Excited Autofluorescence Spectroscopy of Formalin-Fixed Human Tissue

S. Oh et al. Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf 2004

Mixture distribution and flame propagation in a heavy-duty liquid petroleum gas engine with liquid phase injection

L.M. Cabalin et al. University of Malaga 2004

Atomic emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas generated with an annular-shaped laser beam

S.W. Park et al. Hanyang University 2004

Investigation of atomization and evaporation characteristics of high-pressure injection diesel spray using Kelvin—Helmholz instability/droplet deformation and break-up competition model

Y. Lee et al. Korean Institute of Machinery and Materials 2004

Effects of injection timing on mixture distribution in a liquid-phase LPG injection engine for a heavy-duty vehicle

R. Jung et al.
H
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
2004

Optimization and characterization of supersonic gas jet target for laser-plasma interaction studies

S. Katsuki et al. Kumamoto University 2004

Shock wave due to pulsed streamer discharges in water

L.M. Cabalin et al. University of Malaga 2004

Large area mapping of non-metallic inclusions in stainless steel by an automated system based on laser ablation

M.P. Mateo et al. University of Malaga 2003

Line-focused laser ablation for depth-profiling analysis of coated and layered materials

L.M. Cabalín et al. University of Malaga 2003

Chemical maps of patterned samples by microline‐imaging laser‐induced plasma spectrometry

M.P. Mateo et al. University of Malaga 2003

Automated line-focused laser ablation for mapping of inclusions in stainless steel

S.K. Majumder et al. Centre for Advanced Technology 2003

Nonlinear pattern recognition for laser‐induced fluorescence diagnosis of cancer

R.J. Exton et al. NASA Langley Research Center 2003

Volumetric near-field microwave plasma generation

S. Palanco et al. University of Malaga

2002

Open-path laser-induced plasma spectrometry for remote analytical measurements on solid surfaces

M.P. Mateo et al. University of Malaga 2002

Surface interaction and chemical imaging in plasma spectrometry induced with a line-focused laser beam

M. Crittin et al. Institut de Recherche en Ophtalmologie, Sion, Switzerland 2002

Hemoglobin oxygen saturation (So2) in the human ocular fundus measured by reflectance oximetry: preliminary data in retinal veins.

A. Rebane et al. Montana State University 2002

Femtosecond photon echo spectroscopy in single laser shot

S. Tsukamoto et al. Kumamoto University 2001

An analysis of pulsed streamer discharge using a high-speed camera

K.P. Köstli et al. University of Bern 2001

Optoacoustic tomography: time-gated measurement of pressure distributions and image reconstruction

J. Larjo et al. Tampere University of Technology 2001

Atomic hydrogen concentration mapping in thermal plasma chemical vapour deposition

L.M. Cabalín et al. University of Malaga 2001

Surface Stoichiometry of Manganin Coatings Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition As Described by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry

P. Lucena University of Malaga 2001 Three-dimensional distribution analysis of platinum, palladium and rhodium in auto catalytic converters using imaging-mode laser-induced breakdown spectrometry
M. Milan et al. University of Malaga 2001 Diagnostics of silicon plasmas produced by visible nanosecond laser ablation
A.M. Gañán-Calvo et al. Universidad de Sevilla 2001 Perfectly Monodisperse Microbubbling by Capillary Flow Focusing
C.A. Terrell Hampton University 2000

Characterization of the High-speed Flow Generator Using Nonintrusive Optical Techniques

M.A. Palacios et al Universidad Complutense de Madrid 2000

Platinum-group elements: quantification in collected exhaust fumes and studies of catalyst surfaces

M.P. Mateo et al. University of Málaga 2000 Fast Atomic Mapping of Heterogeneous Surfaces Using Microline-Imaging Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry
J. Kim et al. Daewoo Motor Company

2000

A Study on the In-cylinder Flow Characteristics of GDI High-pressure Fuel
K. Roussopoulos et al. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

2000

Measurements of Tip Vortex Characteristics and the Effect of an Anti-Cavitation Lip on a Model Kaplan Turbine Blade
C.A. Terrell Hampton University

2000

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HIGH-SPEED FLOW GENERATORUSING NONINTRUSIVE OPTICAL TECHNIQUES
P. Lucena et al. University of Málaga 1999 Mapping of Platinum Group Metals in Automotive Exhaust Three-Way Catalysts Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry
L.M. Cabalín et al. University of Málaga 1999 Saturation effects in the laser ablation of stainless steel in air at atmospheric pressure
A.H. Lumpkin et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1999

Observations of "effective" transverse beam-size instabilities for a high current per bunch fill pattern in the APS storage ring

Ya. E. Krasik et al. Technion–Israel Institute of Technology 1999

Formation of discharge plasma on the surface of cathodes with different dielectric constants

J.M. Vadillo et al. University of Málaga 1998

Spatial distribution profiles of magnesium and strontium in speleothems using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

P. Lucena et al. University of Málaga 1998

Laser induced breakdown spectrometry of vanadium in titania supported silica catalysts

A.H. Lumpkin et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1998

Time Resolved Imaging for the APS Linac Beams

A.H. Lumpkin et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1998

Planned optical diagnostics for the APS low-energy undulator test line

B. Yang et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1998 Characterizing transverse beam dynamics at the APS storage ring using a dual-sweep streak camera
L.M. Cabalín et al. University of Málaga 1998 Experimental determination of laser induced breakdown thresholds of metals under nanosecond Q-switched laser operation
P. Zhong et al. Duke University 1998 Shock wave–inertial microbubble interaction: Methodology, physical characterization, and bioeffect study
A.H. Lumpkin Argonne National Laboratory 1998 Linac-Beam Characterizations at 600 MeV Using Optical Transition Radiation Diagnostics

M. Milan et al.

University of Málaga 1998 Depth Profiling of Phosphorus in Photonic-Grade Silicon Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry
J.M. Vadillo et al. University of Málaga 1997

Depth-resolved Anaylsis of Multilayered Samples by Laser-induced Breakdown Spectrometry

B.X. Yang et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1997

Characterization of beam dynamics in the APS injector rings using time-resolved imaging techniques

W. Berg et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1997

Design and commissioning of the photon monitors and optical transport lines for the advanced photon source positron accumulator ring

A.H. Lumpkin et al. Argonne National Laboratory 1997

Planned optical diagnostics for the APS low-energy undulator test line

J. Larjo et al. Tampere University of Technology 1997

Temperature mapping of reactive gas layer in thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

P.G. Van Patten et al. University of South Carolina 1996

Spark-Gap Atomic Emission Microscopy

J.M. Vadillo et al. University of Málaga 1996

Space and time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using charge-coupled device detection

X.A. Shen et al. SRI International 1993

Time-domain optical memory for image storage and high-speed image processing

R. Kachru et al. SRI International 1993

High-Speed, High-Density, Coherent Time-Domain Optical Memory

X.A. Shen et al. SRI International 1992

High-speed pattern recognition by using stimulated echoes