Picosecond high speed ICCD camera family:
4 Picos


  • Gate time down to 200ps
  • High resolution images
  • Superior image quality
  • Highest exposure repetition rate
  • Single photon detection
  • Spectral sensitivity from UV to NIR
  • Light and compact design
4 Picos - ultra high speed ICCD camera

4 Picos Brochure
4 Picos ICCD camera brochure icon
Technical drawing
Icon for the technical drawing of the 4Picos and 4QuikE ICCD camera


High speed photography
Plasma expansion dynamics
3D gated viewing Laser radar
Fusion Reaction Diagnostic
Fluorescence lifetime (FLIM)


4 Picos ICCD Camera - fastest intensified CCD camera

ultra fast gated ICCD camera
Based on more than 20 years of excellence in the development and progression of world-class, fast-gated Intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras, Stanford Computer Opitcs sets new standards of rapid, picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy and imaging with the introduction of the 4 Picos ICCD camera family.

The 4 Picos ICCD camera series contains the very best from CCD sensor and gated image intensifier technologies. It is achieving a superior combination of rapid acquisition rates and ultra-high sensitivity down to single photon. Exceptional detection performances are accessed through high quantum-efficiency (QE) image intensifiers, up to 3.3 MHz photocathode gating rates (burst).

Extrem low jitter, low insertion delay gating electronics and picosecond-scale optical gating provide excellent timing accuracy down to 10 picoseconds, allowing ultra-precise synchronisation of complex experiments through 4 Picos ICCD camera series comprehensive range of triggering options and input/outputs interface.

Technical Details




4 Picos, digital HR 4 Picos, digital SR 4 Picos analog
Internal exposure time 200ps - 80s min. steps 10ps, fastest available
External exposure time 200ps ... DC, fastest available
Trigger propagation delay internal gate pulse: 60-65ns
external gate pulse: 30-35ns
Jitter < 0.01ns
Multiple exposure any seqence, min. time step 0.3µs
Dynamic range A/D
(EIA/CCIR analog)
14bit, up to 21bit with 4 Spec E image and data acquisition software
with all lines integrated (binned), dynamic expansion active
Sensitivity of system more than 1count/photoelectron pixel
up to 80s integration time on CCD
Camera digital output standard: CameraLink, optional: USB 2.0 -
CCD output 12bit
EIA (Japan, USA)
CCIR (elsewhere)
CCD resolution 1360 x 1024 pixel
(HR) High Resolution
782 x 582 pixel
(SR) Standard Resolution
768 x 494 (EIA)
752 x 582 (CCIR)
CCD pixel size 4.7 x 4.7µm 8.3 x 8.3µm 8.4 x 9.8µm (EIA)
8.6 x 8.3µm (CCIR)
Binning 1x1 (full frame)
2x2 (binning)
ROI (region of interest)
Frame rate (1x1/2x2/ROI) 10.6 / 17.9 / 20.9fps 33.8 / 60.8 / 67.0fps -
Image Frequency (analog) - - 30/60Hz (EIA)
25/50Hz (CCIR)
Gain  1x1, ROI: 0..20db, 2x2: 0..25db remote control RS232
Scan mode field/frame, selectable through computer RS232 interface
Optical interface C-mount (standard), F-mount (optional)
Coupling lens customized relay coupling lens between image intensifier -> CCD
no distortion, best image quality up to 180 lines/mm
Image intensifier size standard: 18mm diameter
optional: 25mm diameter
Input image area
(field of view)
⌀ 18mm: 14.4 x 10.8mm
⌀ 25mm: 20 x 15mm
Photocathode standard: S20 (UV), S25 (IR) others on request
Spectral sensitivity UV  - NIR, depending on the photocathode
Phosphor screen P43 (P46 on request)
Camera dimensions 248 x 110 x 135mm (l x w x h), without objective lens
Camera weight 3kg, all in one head, without objective lens
Camera mount 1/4" x 20 and M8 mounting hole at the bottom of the camera
Power Supply 12V ±5%


Most ICCD cameras on the market show strong honeycomb structures. Why don't yours?

Very slight honeycomb structures originate from the image intensifiers micro channel plate that is an agglomeration of parallel oriented hexagonal fiber bundles. By using premium quality image intensifiers these structures are so slight that they are indeed not visible in almost all applications. However, clearly visible honeycomb structures are usually added to the image by optical fiber tapers that transfer the light emitted from the image intensifiers phosphor screen towards the CCD sensor. For this reason, we use only in-house developed telecentric coupling lenses instead of fiber tapers to avoid any additional honeycomb structures and furthermore to assure absolute distortion free imaging.

What is the difference between field rate and frame rate?

In contrast to progressive scan in interlaced video technique the pictures on the screen are built up by a sequence of fields which are only the half of a frame. Each frame is divided into two fields where one of both contains the even rows only and the other one contains the odd rows only. Instead for showing 30 frames per second for example, 60 fields are shown per second. Because of the doubled repetition frequency this concept results in a much more flicker-free video reproduction.

What does GenII or GenIII mean?

When night vision devices were originally developed their image intensifiers were bulky and less sensitive units. Improvements were developed later on and from the second generation of image intensifiers, the GenII intensifiers, the innovative multi channel plate was utilized. GenII intensifiers are equipped with different types of photocathode materials, that allow to customize the image intensifier to the spectral requirements of the specific application. However, photocathodes of GenII intensifiers provide quantum efficiencies of the order of only 25%.

GenIII intensifiers, the third generation, also use the highly effective multi channel plate. But, in addition, they offer gallium arsenide photocathodes that feature quantum efficiencies of more than 50%. A selection of available photocathode materials is shown here.

What is the main functional difference between ICCD cameras and EMCCD cameras?

An ICCD camera contains a CCD sensor and an image intensifier mounted in front of it. The image intensifier multiplies the incoming photons and supplies the CCD sensor with a large number of photons even under extreme low-light conditions. Thus, the number of photons collected by the CCD sensor is always much larger than the number of photons originating from the darc current noise. For this reason, there is indeed no need for cooling an ICCD camera.

An EMCCD camera does not contain an image intensifier but an electron multiplying CCD sensor. The incoming photons are directly collected by the CCD sensor. The photo electrons generated by the sensor are then read out and afterwards multiplied electronically in a multi-stage gain register. For this reason, EMCCD cameras need extremely strong cooling, because the electrons originating from the darc current noise are of the same order of magnitude than the signal electrons under low-light conditions and are amplified together with them to the same extend.

Because EMCCD cameras do not include an image intensifier they do not provide fast gating capability as ICCD cameras do.

What is the free running mode?

In the free running mode the camera is periodically gated by the built-in trigger source. The trigger frequency and the field and frame rates resulting therefrom depend on the camera model. E.g. a camera containing an EIA standard video unit runs with 30/60 Hz frame/field rate, whereas a CCIR standard video unit gives 25/50 Hz frame/field rates. Thus, in the free running mode your ICCD camera behaves like a normal video camera.

My camera always shows perpetual fluctuations in image brightness when operated in the free running mode?

This is a typical effect when the camera is operated in free running mode in rooms where artificial lighting is present. The lighting runs with 60 Hz alternated current, hence the illumination of the scene will fluctuate by 120 Hz. On the other hand the cameras shutter is not synchronized to the lightings mains and the exposure time will be much shorter than 1/120 second. So, successive images are taken at different illumination levels each resulting in the observable image brightness fluctuations.

Is cooling always necessary for ICCD cameras for low light conditions?

Yes and no. Cooling the CCD sensor strongly reduces the darc current. Because the noise of the darc current is derived as the darc currents square root the noise is also reduced by cooling the sensor. And, the lower the darc current noise compared to the signals noise the better.

But, ICCD cameras amplify the incoming light itself by means of the image intensifier, so that the CCD sensor detects the already amplified light signal. Hence, the sensor delivers a large signal, also under low light conditions, and thereby also a larger signal noise which again is given by the square root of the signal itself. For this reason its normally not neccessary to decrease the sensors darc current noise by cooling because the noise of the already amplified signal is even higher anyway, at least as long as the sensors temperature does not significantely exceed 30° Celsius.

Please note: This does not impact the signal to noise ratio, because the signal itself is still amplified and scales with the square of the noise. For more information, please see also here.

Are less bits in the A/D conversion would work as well as superior 16 bit A/D converters.

This can obviously not be true. You should not start thinking about this matter by calculating the mathematical resolution of technical A/D converters. Just start with considering the physically given shot noise of the measured light signal. The shot noise is given by the square root of the signals average value. Hence, the shot noise always confiscates the lower significant half of the number of bits that are needed to code the signals average value. So, the usage of more bits in the A/D conversion can indeed not increase resolution or dynamic range because both are in fact limited by the signals shot noise level that lies far above the technical resolution limit anyway. For moe information, please see also here.

I cannot believe its possible to increase resolution and dynamic range without increasing the number of bits in the A/D conversion?

Each A/D conversion gives a certain minimum quantization step. The more bits are used, the smaller the resulting quantization step. However, the resulting values are still digital values. On the other hand a simple mathematical average process following the A/D conversion is of course able to yield real analog values that are not restricted to any quantization levels. This is what frame adding does. Instead of increasing the exposure time of the CCD sensor it adds an equivalent number of short time exposures together in the computer after the A/D conversion. The result is a real analog value. For mor information, please see also here.

I was told that bright light conditions will damage the image intensifier of my ICCD camera?

You can put your mind at rest, they do not. What gives you "watermarks" on the photocathode is not the light intensity onto the camera but a much too high photocurrent over a longer period of time. The photocurrent is proportional to the product of light intensity and gating time which means, that if the light intensity is high, the exposure time has to be short to avoid watermarks. This indeed is a intuitive control process, because if the light intensity is high and the exposure time too long the image will be strongly overexposed. In this case you will reduce exposure time anyway.

If you would like to feel more confident about this we would be pleased to upgrade your camera to automatic exposure control.


Author Year Title
S. Hofmann et al. 2014 Time and spatial resolved optical and electrical characteristics of continuous and time modulated RF plasmas in contact with conductive and dielectric substrates
D. Müller et al. 2014 2D temperature measurements in particle loaded technical flames by filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS)
D. Graves et al. 2013 Photophysical Investigation of the Thermally Activated Delayed Emission from Films of m-MTDATA:PBD Exciplex
Y. Sun et al. 2013 Endoscopic Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging for in vivo Intraoperative Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma
E. Stanislovaityte et al. 2013 Carbazole based polymers as hosts for blue iridium emitters: synthesis, photophysics and high efficiency PLEDs
B. Kumar et al. 2013

Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

Y. Seepersad et al. 2013

Non-equilibrium plasma in liquid phase: time-resolved diagnostics and leader-type model based on electrostriction mechanism

D. Park et al. 2013

Plasma Bullets Propagation Inside of Agarose Tissue Mode

A. F. H. van Gessel
et al.

NO production in an RF plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

V. Jankus et al. 2013

Competition between polaron pair formation and singlet fission observed in amorphous rubrene films

Y. Seepersad et al. 2013

Investigation of positive and negative modes of nanosecond pulsed discharge in water and electrostriction model of initiation

F.B. Dias et al 2013

Triplet Harvesting with 100% Efficiency by Way of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Charge Transfer OLED Emitters

P. Martin-Ramos et al. 2013 Novel erbium(III) fluorinated b-diketonate complexes with N,N-donors for optoelectronics: from synthesis to solution-processed devices
V. N. Kozhevnikov et al. 2013 Cyclometalated Ir(III) Complexes for High-Efficiency Solution-Processable Blue PhOLEDs
S. Zhang et al. 2013 Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures in a time modulated RF-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet:an analysis of the production and destruction mechanisms
J. Zhang et al. 2013 Efficient Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (LECs) Based on Ionic Iridium(III) Complexes with 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Ligands
S. Cheng et al. 2013 Flexible endoscope for continuous in vivo multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging
S. Döringa et al. 2013 Hole formation process in ultrashort pulse laser percussion drilling
D. Dobrynin et al. 2013 Non-equilibrium nanosecond-pulsed plasma generation in the liquid phase (water, PDMS) without bubbles: fast imaging, spectroscopy and leader-type mode.
Y. Seepersad et al. 2013

To the electrostrictive mechanism of nanosecond-pulsed breakdown in liquid phase

E.J. Lerner et al. 2012

Fusion reactions from >150 keV ions in a dense plasma focus plasmoid

V. Jankus et al. 2012

Deep Blue Exciplex Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Enhanced Efficiency; P-type or E-type Triplet Conversion to Singlet Excitons?

H.A. Al‐Attar et al. 2012

Controlled energy transfer between isolated donor-acceptor molecules intercalated in thermally self-ensemble two-dimensional hydrogen bonding cages

A. M'hamedi et al. 2012

Dinuclear iridium (iii) complexes of cyclometalated fluorenylpyridine ligands as phosphorescent dopants for efficient solution-processed OLEDs

R. Chapman et al. 2012

Anomalous saturation effects due to optical spin depolarization in nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond nanocrystals

J.E. Phipps et al. 2012

A fluorescence lifetime imaging classification method to investigate the collagen to lipid ratio in fibrous caps of atherosclerotic plaque

C. Coya et al. 2012

Star-shaped hexaaryltriindoles small molecules: Tuning molecular properties towards solution processed organic light emitting devices

M. Tavasli et al. 2012

Colour tuning from green to red by substituent effects in phosphorescent tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes of carbazole-based ligands: synthetic, photophysical, computational and high efficiency OLED studies

L. Marcu et al. 2012

Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Imaging in Neurosurgery

H.A. Al‐Attar et al. 2012

Room‐Temperature Phosphorescence From Films of Isolated Water‐Soluble Conjugated Polymers in Hydrogen‐Bonded Matrices

V. Jankus et al. 2012

Energy Upconversion via Triplet Fusion in Super Yellow PPV Films Doped with Palladium Tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin: a Comprehensive Investigation of Exciton Dynamics

P. Le Delliou et al. 2011

Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge Phenomenology in Micrometer-Sized Radially Confined Air Gap

A. Starikovskiy et al. 2011

Non-equilibrium plasma in liquid water: dynamics of generation and quenching

J. Jansky et al. 2011

Propagation of an air discharge at atmospheric pressure in a capillary glass tube: influence of the tube radius on the discharge structure

A. Starikovskiy et al. 2011

Nonequilibrium Liquid Plasma Generation

A. Starikovskiy et al. 2011

Streamer Breakdown Development in Undercritical Electric Field

A. Kumar et al. 2011

Image analysis of expanding laser-produced lithium plasma plume in variable transverse magnetic field

Z. El Otell et al. 2011 Effects of pulse shape tailoring on the properties of a pulsed capacitively coupled radiofrequency discharge
Y. Yang et al. 2011

Nonequilibrium Liquid Plasma Generation

X. Shiwei et al. 2011 Design and implementation of the laser range-gating imaging synchronization control system

M.A. Malik et al.


Streamers in Water and Along the Insulator Surface in a Wire–Cylinder Gap

M.A.H. Chowdury et al. 2011

Spectral investigation and laser action in solid films of fluorene-dibenzothiophene-s, s-dioxide co-polymers

D. Raju et al. 2011

Study of Laser-Blow-Off Plume Dynamics Using Singular Value Decomposition Technique

P. Le Delliou et al. 2011

Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge Phenomenology in Micrometer-Sized Radially Confined Air Gap

J. Jánský et al. 2011

Experimental and numerical study of the propagation of a discharge in a capillary tube in air at atmospheric pressure

S.U. Pandya et al. 2011

Solution-processable ambipolar host oligomers with high triplet energies for phosphorescent green emitters

J. Phipps et al. 2011

Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the characterization of the biochemical composition of atherosclerotic plaques

V. Jankus et al. 2011

Critical Role of Triplet Exciton Interface Trap States in Bilayer Films of NPB and Ir(piq)3

V. Jankus et al. 2011

Is Poly(vinylcarbazole) a Good Host for Blue Phosphorescent Dopants in PLEDs? Dimer Formation and Their Effects on the Triplet Energy Level of Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and Poly(N-Ethyl-2-Vinylcarbazole)

R. Chapman et al. 2011

Optically Induced Polarization and Depolarization of an Electron Spin in a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center of Diamond Nano-crystals

E.J. Lerner et al. 2011 Theory and Experimental Program for pB 11 Fusion with the Dense Plasma Focus
P. Pande et al. 2011 Automated analysis of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (flim) data based on the laguerre deconvolution method
J.E. Phipps 2011

Time-resolved fluorescence techniques for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease characterization

P. Thomas et al. 2010 Biochemical Imaging of Human Atherosclerotic Plaques with Fluorescence Lifetime Angioscopy
A. Kumar et al. 2010 Influence of laser beam intensity profile on propagation dynamics of laser-blow-off plasma plume
S. George et al. 2010 Effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of plasma plume formed by laser blow off of thin film
V. Jankus et al. 2010 Dynamics of triplet migration in films of N, N'-diphenyl-N, N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1, 1'-biphenyl-4, 4''-diamin
R.K. Dey et al. 2010

Report on Optical Absorption, Steady-state Emission and Time-resolved Emission Spectroscopy of Carbazole-based Conjugated Polymers

L. Marcu 2010

Fluorescence lifetime in cardiovascular diagnostics

A.-A.H. Mohamed et al. 2010

Low temperature, atmospheric pressure, direct current microplasma jet operated in air, nitrogen and oxygen

Y. Sun et al. 2010

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for brain tumor image-guided surgery

A.L. Rusanov et al. 2010

Lifetime imaging of FRET between red fluorescent proteins

T. Plakhotnik et al. 2010

Luminescence of nitrogen-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at temperatures between 300 and 700 K: perspectives on nanothermometr

S.U. Pandya et al. 2010

Luminescent Platinum(II) Complexes Containing Cyclometallated Diaryl Ketimine Ligands: Synthesis, Photophysical and Computational Properties

V. Jankus 2010

Study of Triplet Exciton Dynamics in Small Organic Molecule Films Using Time Resolved Optical Spectroscopy

B.R. Smith et al. 2010

The effects of surface oxidation on luminescence of nano diamonds

B.R. Smith et al. 2009

Five-Nanometer Diamond with Luminescent Nitrogen-Vacancy Defect Centers

S.E. Mani et al. 2009

Large third-order susceptibility and third-harmonic generation in centrosymmetric Cu2 O crystal

V. Jankus et al. 2009

The photophysics of singlet, triplet, and degradation trap states in 4,4-N,N′-dicarbazolyl-1,1′-biphenyl

C.M. Brendel et al. 2009

Photophysical properties of the asymmetrically substituted spirobifluorenes spiro‐DPO and spiro‐MeO‐DPO

A. Kumar et al. 2009

An experimental setup to study the expansion dynamics of laser blow-off plasma plume in variable transverse magnetic field

Y.K. Chembo et al.


Controlling the emission properties of multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasersvia polarization- and frequency-selective feedback

Y. Sun et al. 2009

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: in vivo application to diagnosis of oral carcinoma

G. Craggs et al. 2009

Thermally Controlled Onset of Spatially IncoherentEmission in a Broad-Area Vertical-CavitySurface-Emitting Laser

S. Nagla et al. 2008

Microarray analysis of protein–protein interactions based on FRET using subnanosecond-resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging

K. Schoenbach et al. 2008

Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

M. Brajdic et al. 2008

In situ measurement of plasma and shock wave properties inside laser-drilled metal holes

M. Czichy et al. 2008

Ignition of mercury-free high intensitydischarge lamps

N. de Vries et al. 2008

Thomson scattering measurements on a low pressure surface wave sustained plasma in argon

S.K. Mandre et al. 2008

Evolution from modal to spatially incoherent emission of a broad-area VCSEL

S. García-Revilla et al. 2008

Ultrafast random laser emission in a dye-doped silica gel powder

N. de Vries
(Ph.D. Thesis)

Spectroscopic study of microwave induced plasmas

S. Zimmermann et al. 2008

PSI: An innovative method to determine and to classify particles during the thermal spray process

S. Zimmermann et al. 2008

Innovative Methode zur Partikelklassifizierung beim thermischen Spritzen  (german)

C. Hartmann et al 2007

Investigation on laser micro ablation of metals using ns-multi-pulses

D. Mathew et al. 2007

Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

D. Mathew
(Ph.D. Thesis)
2007 Discharge instabilities in high-pressure fluorine based excimer laser gas mixtures
S. Zimmermann
(Ph.D. Thesis)

Particle Shape Imaging (PSI)– eine innovative Methode der Partikeldiagnostik bei thermischen Beschichtungsverfahren (german)

X.P. Lu et al. 2006

Dynamics of an atmospheric pressure plasma plume generatedby submicrosecond voltage pulses

X.P. Lu et al. 2006

Temporal and spatial emission behaviour of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge driven by unipolar sub-microsecond square pulses

C. Rothe et al.


Violation of the Exponential-Decay Law at Long Times

M.J. Boland et al. 2006


S.K. Mandre et al. 2006

Determining the temporally and radially resolved temperature distribution inside a pulsed broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emittinglaser cavity

D. Mathew et al. 2006

Influence of electrode materials and surface roughness on the homogeneity of discharges in fluorine-based excimer laser gas mixtures

D. Mathew et al. 2006

Current filamentation in discharge-excited F2 based excimer laser gas mixtures

K. Ferria et al. 2006

Acousto-optic lens based on interaction of narrow laser beam with cylindrical ultrasound

K. Landes et al. 2006

Diagnostics in plasma spraying techniques

C. Rothe et al. 2006

Systematic study of the dynamics of triplet exciton transfer between conjugated host polymers and phosphorescent iridium (III) guest emitters

X. Lu et al. 2006

Homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge in He/N2 mixtures driven by unipolar sub-microsecond square pulses

J.C. Bergstrom et al. 2006

The optical diagnostic beamline at the Canadian Light Source

X.P. Lu et al. 2006

Temporal and spatial emission behaviour of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge driven by unipolar sub-microsecond square pulses

C. Schur (Thesis) 2006

HOBAS ein neuartiges Hochgeschwindigkeits Bildaufnahme System (german)

C. Janzen et al. 2005

Analysis of small droplets with a new detector for liquid chromatography based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

E.R. Kieft et al. 2005

Subnanosecond Thomson scattering on a vacuum arc discharge in tin vapor

C. Rothe et al. 2005

Effects of triplet exciton confinement induced by reduced conjugation length in polyspirobifluorene copolymers

C. Rothe et al. 2005

Absolute measurements of the triplet-triplet annihilation rate and the charge-carrier recombination layer thickness in working polymer light-emitting diodes based on polyspirobifluorene

E.R. Kieft et al. 2005

Subnanosecond Thomson scattering setup for space and time resolved measurements with reduced background signal

E.R. Kieft et al. 2005

Sub-ns Thomson scattering applied to an EUV emitting vacuum arc discharge in tin vapor

S. Sinha et al. 2005

Delayed recombination of detrapped space-charge carriers in poly [2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylene vinylene]-based light-emitting diode

J. Busck 2005

Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar

J.F. Andersen et al. 2005

Long distance high accuracy 3-D laser radar and person identification

J. Eichhorn and F. Rowedder (Thesis) 2004

Entwurf, Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme eines neuartigen Hochgeschwindigkeits-Bildaufnahmesystems (german)

C. Rothe et al. 2004

Triplet exciton state and related phenomena in the β-phase of poly (9, 9-dioctyl) fluorene

S. Zimmermann et al. 2004

A particle image shape imaging (PSI) investigation of particles in a plasma jet

Y. Cho et al. 2004

Analysis of turbulent premixed flame structure using simultaneous PIV-OH PLIF

S. Gundy et al. 2004

The use of chloroaluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS) for time-delayed fluorescence imaging

J. Busck, H. Heiselberg 2004

High-accuracy 3D laser radar

J. Busck, H. Heiselberg 2004

Gated viewing and high-accurancy three-dimensional laser radar

X.P. Lu et al. 2003

Ignition phase and steady-state structures of a non-thermal air plasma

X.P. Lu, et al. 2003

Temporal emission behavior of pulsed discharge in water

S. Sinha et al. 2003

Electrophosphorescence and delayed electroluminescence from pristine polyfluorene thin-film devices at low temperature

S.I. Hintschich et al. 2003

Population and decay of keto states in conjugated polymers

C. Rothe et al. 2003

Triplet exciton migration in a conjugated polyfluorene

S. Sinha et al. 2003

Delayed electroluminescence via triplet–triplet annihilation in light emitting diodes based on poly [2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylene vinylene]

S. Sinha et al. 2003

Space-charge-mediated delayed electroluminescence from polyfluorene thin films

S. Zimmermann et al. 2003

Particle Diagnostics in Plasma Spray Jets

S.L. Gundy et al. 2003

Time-gated fluorescence imaging of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate in a tissue phantom

S. Katsuki et al. 2002

Parallel streamer discharges between wire and plane electrodes in water

S.I. Hintschic 2002

The influence of interchain interactions on the photophysics of conjugated polymers

S. Sinha et al. 2002

Detailed investigations on the photophysical properties of poly (2, 5-pyridine diyl)

C. Rothe et al. 2002

Pressure dependent radiative quantum yields of the prompt and delayed luminescence of polyfluorene films

C. Rothe et al. 2002

Spectroscopic investigation of the different long-lived photoexcitations in a polythiophene

C. Rothe et al. 2002

Singlet and triplet energy transfer in a benzil-doped, light emitting, solid-state conjugated polymer

T.V. Streibl et al. 2001

Diagnostics of thermal spray processes by in-flight measurement of particle size and shape with innovative Particle-Shape-Imaging (PSI)

C. Rothe et al. 2001

Trap influenced properties of the delayed luminescence in thin solid films of the conjugated polymer Poly (9, 9-di (ethylhexyl) fluorene)

A. Dunaevsky et al. 2001

Spectroscopy of a ferroelectric plasma cathode